شناسایی ابعاد و مؤلفه‌های مفهوم خودسازماندهی شهری با استفاده از روش فراترکیب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای شهرسازی- گروه شهرسازی، واحد مشهد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران

2 استادیار گروه شهرسازی، واحد مشهد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران

3 استادیار گروه شهرسازی ، دانشکده هنر و معماری، واحد مشهد ، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ،مشهد ، ایران

4 دانشیار گروه شهرسازی، واحد مشهد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران

10.22124/upk.2020.14199.1278

چکیده

بیان مسأله: از زمان ورود مفهوم خودسازماندهی از حوزه­ی سیستم­های پیچیده به حوزه­ی مطالعات شهری، این موضوع مورد توجه پژوهشگران بسیاری قرار گرفته است و محققین مختلف با رویکرد های متفاوتی به آن نگریسته­اند، اما فقدان پژوهشی که تمام ابعاد، ویژگی­ها و مؤلفه­های این مفهوم را مورد بررسی قرار داده و درک جامعی از خودسازماندهی شهری را ارائه نماید، احساس می­گردد.
هدف: هدف از این پژوهش، شناسایی ابعاد و مؤلفه­های مفهوم خودسازماندهی شهری و تلاش برای دستیابی به درک جامعی از آن می­باشد. نتایج این پژوهش می­تواند ابعاد مختلف مفهوم خودسازماندهی شهری را جهت بهره­گیری در توسعه­ی شهرها و محلات کشور روشن سازد.
روش: برای رسیدن به هدف مذکور در تحقیق حاضر از روش فراترکیب استفاده شده است. در گام اول از میان 62 مقاله­ی اولیه­ی یافته شده، تعداد 29 مقاله به صورت اصولی و با استفاده از روش کسپ غربال شده­اند. در گام بعدی مقالات نهایی با محوریت سؤال پژوهش، در نرم­افزار MAXQDA کدگذاری شده و یافته­های کیفی مورد تحلیل و ترکیب قرار گرفت.
یافته­ها:  در این پژوهش، طی فرآیند استخراج اطلاعات تعداد 108 کد شناسایی شد و سپس با توجه به میزان شباهت مفاهیم، در قالب پنج مقوله­ی "زمینه ها و عوامل مؤثر"، "نظریات پشتیبان"­، "ویژگی­ها"، "دامنه­ی کاربرد" و "مقیاس"، دسته بندی شده و تلاش گردید که هر کدام از مقولات مذکور به تفکیک نوع دیدگاه تشریح گردد.
نتیجه ­گیری: در پژوهش پیش رو، برای نخستین بار ابعاد و مؤلفه­های خودسازماندهی شهری به تفصیل مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. نتایج  این پژوهش نشان می­دهد، اگرچه مطابق با نظریات موجود، ماهیت فرآیندهای خودسازماندهی شهری بر پایه­ی تعاملات محلی و به دور از دخالت نیروهای خارجی مانند دولت قرار دارد، اما جهت مطالعه این فرآیندها و بهره­گیری از آنها در فرآیندهای برنامه­ریزی، توجه به نقش عوامل محیطی و خارجی نیز ضروری به نظر می­رسد.

تازه های تحقیق

  • بررسی تفصیلی ابعاد و مؤلفه­های مفهوم خودسازماندهی شهری در قالب مقولات "زمینه ها و عوامل مؤثر"، "نظریات پشتیبان"­، "ویژگی­ها"، "دامنه­ی کاربرد" و "مقیاس" برای نخستین بار و تلاش برای دستیابی به درک جامعی از این مفهوم
  • ارائه پیشنهادات کاربردی و مطالعاتی در حوزه­ی خودسازماندهی شهری مطابق با نتایج بدست آمده در پژوهش حاض

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification of the urban self-organization's dimensions and components using the meta-synthesis method

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Saffar Sabzevar 1
  • Maryam Daneshvar 2
  • Toktam Hanaee 3
  • Seyed Moslem Seyedolhosseini 4
1 PhD Candidate, Department of Urbanism, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Urbanism, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Urbanism, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Urbanism, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Problem statement: Since the arrival of the concept of self-organization from the domain of the complex systems to the field of urban studies, this topic has attracted many scholars. Various researchers have come up with it from two different approaches including the socio-spatial self-organizing and community-based urban self-organization. Studies showed that the concept of the urban self-organization can help planners to improve not only the unexpected spatial-social events in cities and the inadequate implementation of the anticipated plans and programs, but also the inefficiencies in the existing collaborative processes. Trying to apply the concept of the urban self-organization in the planning and management of the cities requires a detailed understanding of this concept and its various aspects. However, there has been no research that investigates all the dimensions, features and components of this concept and provides a comprehensive understanding of the urban self-organization. In this regard, the present study seeks to answer this question: what are the dimensions and components of the concept of the urban self-organization?
Aim: the purpose of the present study was to identify the dimensions and components of this concept and to achieve a comprehensive understanding of it. The results of this research can clarify the different dimensions of the urban self-organization concept for exploitation in the development of cities and neighborhoods of the country.
Methodology: In this research, the meta-synthesis has been used to study the concept of the urban self-organization and to explain its dimensions and components. The research population consisted of all Persian and English scientific articles published in the field of the urban self-organization, without temporal and spatial constraints. The Sid, Magiran, Springer, Google Scholar, Wiley, Science Direct and Taylor & Francis databases have been used to access these articles. The total number of the articles obtained in this study was 62, which was reviewed by the CASP method in order to obtain more accurate results. After screening articles through the CASP, there was 29 articles and due to the low sample size, all of them were examined. Of the 29 final papers, 11 articles had considered urban self-organization as a socio-spatial theme (first view), they were published mainly in the early years of introducing the self-organization in the field of the urban studies. The remaining 18 articles had referred to the urban self-organization as a community-based phenomenon (second view), which has been included in the urban discourse since about 2010. The final sources were coded using the MAXQDA 10 software with a focus on the research question, aiming at a comprehensive understanding of the concept of the urban self-organization and explaining its various dimensions.
Findings: During the data extraction process, 108 codes were identified and then they were grouped into five categories according to the similarity of concepts, i.e., "fields and factors", "supporting theories", "properties", "scope of use" and "measure". It was tried to explain each of the mentioned categories based on the type of the view, respectively.
Conclusion: In the present study, for the first time, the dimensions and components of the urban self-organization were investigated in detail.The results of the present study showed that although according to the existing theories, the nature of the urban self-organization processes is based on the local interactions and not the interference of the external factors such as the government, however, to study these processes and to use them in planning processes, it is necessary to consider the role of the environmental and external factors. In order to support and encourage the processes of the urban self-organization as a tool for the collaborative planning which can assume some of the responsibilities of the governments, it is necessary first and foremost that the urban self-organization processes as valuable capacities to be accepted by the city officials. In order to take advantage of these capacities, it is necessary to establish and envisage the legal frameworks based on the citizens' collective initiatives. Transparency of the information related to the urban planning and sharing this information with the local residents through the use of the information technology and through the launch of the online sites and software are other measures that could support and accelerate these processes. Also, identifying the structural forces of each neighborhood, whether individual or local, and facilitating the exchange of information between the government and the citizen, are among the issues that should be addressed. In addition, upgrading the social capital in the neighborhoods can increase the likelihood of the urban self-organization processes at the neighborhood level.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Complex Systems
  • Urban Self-organization
  • Meta-synthesis
عابدی جعفری، عابد؛ امیری، مجتبی. (1398). فراترکیب، روشی برای سنتز مطالعات کیفی. روش شناسی علوم انسانی، 25 (99)، 73- 87.

خان احمدلو، سمانه؛ فیضی، محسن؛ مفیدی شمیرانی، سید مجید. (1396). تأثیر بررسی رفتار حرارتی پوسته بنا در ساختمان­های مسکونی بر اصلاح ساخت و ساز به منظور کاهش اتلاف انرژی. مدیریت شهری، 16 (47)، 433-446.

شورجه، محمود. (1395). دیدگاه­های نو در سیستم­های شهری (ویرایش دوم). تهران، انتشارات پرهام نقش. (کتاب اصلی در سال 1393 منتشر شده است).

 

 Abedi Jafari, A.,  Amiri, M. (2019). Meta-Synthesis as a Method for Synthesizing Qualitative Researches. Methodology of Social Sciences and Humanities (MSSH),25 (99), 73-87. (In Persian)

Ashby, W. R. (2004). Principles of the self-organizing system. E: CO Special Double, 6 (1-2), 102-126.

Atkinson, R., Dörfler, T., Hasanov, M., Rothfu, E., & Smith, I. (2017). Making the case for self-organization: understanding how communities make sense of sustainability & climate change through collective action. Sustainable Society, 9 (3), 1-20.

Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Lieke, L. B. (2012). Work engagement, performance, and active learning: The role of conscientiousness. Journal of vocational behavior, 80 (2), 555-564.

Barros, J., Sobreira, F. (2002, June). City of slums self-organization across scales. Paper presented at the International Conference on Complex Systems, Nashua, NH, USA.

Batty, M., Xie, Y. (1999). Self-organized Criticality and Urban Development. Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society, 3, 109- 124.

Bench, S., & Day, T. (2010). The user experience of qualitative research. International journal of nursing studies, 47 (4), 487-499.

Boonstra, B., Boelens, L. (2011). Self-organization in urban development: towards a new perspective on spatial planning. Urban Research & Practice, 4 (2), 99–122.

Camazine, S., Deneubourg, J. L., Franks, N. R., Sneyd, J., Theraula, G., & Bonabeau, E. (2003). Self-Organization in Biological Systems. Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Cozzolino, S., Buitelaar, E., Moroni, S., & Sorel, N. (2017). Experimenting in Urban Self-organization. Framework-rules and Emerging Orders in Oosterwold (Almere, The Netherlands). Cosmos+Taxis, 4 (2+3).

Dayong, Y.,  Minjie, Z., & Athanasios V. V. (2017). A Survey of Self-Organization Mechanisms in Multiagent Systems. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, 47 (3), 441 – 461.

Eizenberg, E. (2019). Patterns of self-organization in the context of urban planning: Reconsidering venues of participation. Planning Theory. 18 (1), 40- 57.

Feder-Levy, E., Blumenfeld-Liebertal, E., & Portugali, J. (2016). The well-informed city: A decentralized, bottom-up model for a smart city service using information and self-organization. Paper presented at the Smart Cities Conference (ISC2), Trento, Italy.

Feltz, B., Crommelinck, M., & Goujon, P. (2006). Self-organization and Emergence in Life Sciences.Springer Science & Business Media.

Haken, H., Portugali, J. (1995). A synergetic approach to the self-organization of cities and settlements. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 22, 35- 46.

Hasanov, M., Beaumont, J. (2016). The value of collective intentionality for understanding urban self-organization. Urban Research & Practice, 9 (3), 231-249.

Hasanov, M., Zuidema, C. (2018). The transformative power of self-organization: Towards a conceptual framework for understanding local energy initiatives in The Netherlands. Energy Research & Social Science, (37), 85–93.

Horelli, L., Saad-Sulonen, J., Wallin, S., & Botero, A. (2015). When Self-Organization Intersects with Urban Planning: Two Cases from Helsinki. Planning, Practice & Research, 30 (3), 286–302.

Hua, H. (2012). Planning meets self-organization: Integrating interactive evolutionary computation with cellular automata for urban planning. Frontiers of Architectural Research, 1 (4), 400–404.

Khan Ahmad Lou, S., Feizi, M., & Mofidi Shemirani, S. M. (2017). The effect of the thermal behavior of the building shell in the modified construction of residential buildings to reduce energy waste. International Journal of Urban and Management, 16 (47), 433-446. (In Persian)

Kleinhans, R., Van Ham, M., & Evans-Cowley, J. (2015). Using Social Media and Mobile Technologies to Foster Engagement and Self-Organization in Participatory Urban Planning and Neighbourhood Governance. Planning, Practice & Research, 30 (3), 237–247.

Kohonen, T., Somervuo, P. (2002). How to make large self-organizing maps for nonvectorial data. Neural Networks, 15 (8-9), 945-952.

Korah, P. I., Cobbinah, P. B., & Nunbogu, A. M. (2017). Spatial Planning in Ghana: Exploring the Contradictions. Planning Practice & Research, 32 (4), 361-384.

Mamei, M., Menezes, R., Tolksdorf, R., & Zambonelli, F. (2006). Case studies for self-organization in computer science. Journal of Systems Architecture,  52 (8–9), 443–460.

Meerkerk, I. v., Boonstra, B., & Edelenbos, J. (2013). Self-Organization in Urban Regeneration: A Two-Case Comparative Research. European Planning Studies, 21 (10), 1630–1652.

Moulaert, F., Swyngedouw, E., Martinelli, F., & Gonzalez, S. (2010). Can Neighbourhoods Save the City? Community Development and Social Innovation. Abingdon, Rutledge.

Nederhand, J., Bekkers, V., & Voorberg, W. (2015). Self-Organization and the Role of Government: How and why does self-organization evolve in the shadow of hierarchy?. Public Management Review,18 (7), 1063-1084.

Nicolis, G., Prigogen, I. (1977). Self-Organization in Non-Equilibrium Systems: From Dissipative Structures to Order Through Fluctuations. Wiley.

Noblit, G. W., Hare, D. R., (1988). Meta-ethnography: Synthesizing qualitative studies. Newbury Park, Sage.

Nunbogu, A. M., Korah, P. I. (2016). Self-organisation in urban spatial planning: evidence from the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana. Urban Research & Practice, 10 (4), 423-441.

Partanen, J. (2015). Indicators for self-organization potential in urban context. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 42, 951–971.

Paterson, B., Thorne, C. C., & Jillings, C. (2001). Meta- study of qualitative health research: a practical guide to meta-analysis and meta-synthesis. California, Sage.

Perrone, C. (2019). ‘Downtown Is for People’: The street-level approach in Jane Jacobs' legacy and its resonance in the planning debate within the complexity theory of cities. Cities, 91, 10-16.

Portugali, J., Benenson, I., & Omer, I. (1997). Spatial cognitive dissonance and sociospatial emergence in a self-organizing city. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 24, 263- 285.

Portugali, J. (2011). Complexity, Cognition and the City. Heidelberg, Dordrecht, London, New York, Springer.

Portugali, J. (2000). Self-Organization and the City. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Springer-Verlag.

Shorjeh, M. (2016). New Perspectives in Urban Systems (3th ed). Tehran, Parham Publication. (Original work published 2014) (In Persian)

Von Forester, H. (2003). Understanding Understanding Essays on Cybernetics and Cognition. New York, Springer-Verlag.

Walsh, D. & Downe, S., (2005). Meta-synthesis method for qualitative research: a literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 50 (2), 204–11.

Yan, J., Liu, J., & Tseng, F. M. (In Press). An evaluation system based on the self-organizing system framework of smart cities: A case study of smart transportation systems in China. Technological Forecasting & Social Change. Retrieved 2018, Dec. 25, from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2018.07.009.

Zhang, S., De, R.G.,  & Van, D. T. (2015). Urban Land Changes as the Interaction Between Self-Organization and Institutions. Planning, Practice & Research, 30 (2), 160–178.

Zimmer, L. (2004). Qualitative meta‐synthesis: a question of dialoguing with texts. Journal of advanced nursing, 53 (3), 311-318.