فراتحلیل رابطه فرم شهر و انرژی: مروری بررویکردها، روش ها، مقیاس ها و متغیرها

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران

2 استاد گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 استاد گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در سال­های اخیر، با توجه به بحران­های موجود در زمینه تغییر اقلیم، مصرف انرژی و آلودگی­های زیست محیطی از طریق انتشارات کربن، موضوع رابطه فرم شهری و انرژی در شهرها توجه پژوهشگران زیادی را در رشته­های مختلف به خود جلب کرده است.گستردگی این حوزه ناگزیر منجر به تعدد تفاسیر و انجام پژوهش­های متنوع در خصوص دامنه مشکل و نیز سنجش رابطه بین فرم شهری و انرژی با استفاده از انواع متغیرها و روش­ها در مقیاس­ها و رویکردهای مختلف شده است. این مقاله در پی آن است با مرور مطالعات انجام شده درخصوص رابطه فرم شهری و انرژی (119 مقاله)، به مقایسه و تحلیل متغیرها و روش­ها در مقیاس­ها و رویکردهای به کار گرفته شده بپردازد. تحلیل مقالاتی که بین سال­های 1974 تا 2019 در این حوزه انتشار یافته­اند، نشان داد مطالعات صورت گرفته عمدتاً در قالب 7 دسته کلی به موضوع "رابطه فرم شهری و انرژی" پرداخته­اند: 1- فرم شهری (با تأکید بر بخش ساختمان و یا یکی از شاخص­های مربوطه به ویژه تراکم) و انرژی 2- فرم شهری (با تأکید بر کاربری زمین) و انرژی 3-فرم شهری (با تأکید بر بخش حمل و نقل) و انرژی 4- فرم شهری (ترکیبی از بخش ساختمان و حمل­ونقل) و انرژی 5- فرم شهری و رابطه آن با تغییر اقلیم، جزایر حرارتی، آسایش اقلیمی و پایداری 6- فرم شهری و بارهای حرارتی 7- فرم شهری و مدیریت انرژی، یا برنامه ریزی و سیاست­های انرژی. در نهایت علیرغم متنوع بودن رویکردها، روش­ها، مقیاس­ها و متغیرهای استفاده شده، چالش­ها و فرصت­های مشترک و قابل استنتاج ارائه شده است. نتایج این مقاله حاکی از آن است که موضوع رابطه فرم شهری و انرژی امکان آن را دارد که فراتر از رویکردها، مقیاس­ها و روش­های تک رشته­ای به دیدگاهی یکپارچه و پویا دست یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Urban Form and Energy: A Review of Approaches, Methods, Scales and Variables

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeedeh Shoja 1
  • Mohammadreza Pourjafar 2
  • Manouchehr Tabibian 3
1 Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of architecture and Urban Planning, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran
2 Department of Urban Design and Planning, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Fine Arts, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

During the recent years, considering the current crises about the climate change, energy consumption and the environmental contaminants through carbon emission, the relationship between the urban form and energy in the cities has attracted the attention of many scholars from various disciplines. The extension of this area leads to the multiplicity of interpretations and various studies and also measuring the relationship between the urban form and energy using different variables and methods at different scales and approaches. The aim of the present paper was to compare and analyze the employed variables, methods and models at the different scales and approaches through reviewing a total number of 119 articles. Reviewing the articles which were published between 1974 and 2019 in this field reflected the fact that these studies have dealt with the relationship between urban form and energy in seven general categories: 1.The urban form (with emphasis on the building or one of the urban form indicators, especially density) and energy, 2. The urban form (with emphasis on the land use), 3. The urban form (with emphasis on the transport), 4. The urban form (with emphasis on the combination of the building and transport sectors) and energy, 5. Urban form and its relationship with the climate change, heat islands, thermal comfort and sustainability, 6. Urban form and thermal loads, and 7. Urban form and energy management, or planning and energy policies. Finally, in spite of the variety in the used approaches, methods, measures and variables, common and deductible challenges and opportunities were presented. The results indicated that the topic of the relationship between the urban form and energy could be studied with an integrated and dynamic viewpoint, beyond the single-disciplinary approaches, scales and methods.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Form
  • Energy
  • Variables
  • Methods
  • Scales
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