عنوان مقاله [English]
Islamic city” is a term coined by mostly French orientalists who had undertaken the structural studies of cities in the northern Africa. They provided some characteristics of the cities they had observed (and not all cities with Muslim residents), and they attributed the characteristics to the Islamic city, despite the fact that some of these characteristics went back to climates, and others to the interminglement of cultures, manners, and customs of a land with the Islamic culture, which were not directly related to the existential and legislative doctrines within the Islamic worldview. Therefore, in order to scrutinize the concept of city in Islam, we need to consult its most important source, that is Quran, as well as the tradition (or hadiths, that is, the speeches and deeds of the household of the Islamic Prophet), so that the existential and legislative characteristics of the Islamic city might be understood. In this paper, the method of phenomenology and the text interpretation were used to explore the notion of the city, and the four concepts, i.e., “balad,” “qaryah,” “madina,” and “misr” were extracted from Quran. Features of these concepts were elaborated by drawing on exegeses provided by the prominent religious scholars and the investigation of the relevant hadiths. These features were then compared with the theories of the orientalists about the Islamic city as well as the modern theories of urbanization and features of the contemporary (Islamic) cities. Studies showed that in the Islamic Sharia, there are specific instructions for the people’s lifestyle, which determine the conditions in which they live in the city, and finally, the city is formed and its physical structure is constructed under the influence of such lifestyle, along with the other factors (cultural, geographical, etc.). What is known today as the Islamic city is very far from the aforementioned doctrines, and cannot be the Islamic city. A city is Islamic if both its appearance and essences (people’s ethics and behavior) are Islamic.