عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: The complexities and types of urban problems have caused a gap between the theory and practice of planning, many goals and movements, and evolution in concepts and practice in planning. Planning of cities is very important because cities can be complex systems and planning programs evolve according to the ever-increasing changes in cities and identify new horizons in this field. The purpose of the current research is actant-network theories in urban planning and also the development of new horizons using new intellectual-philosophical theories in urban planning.
Methodology: The current research is fundamental in terms of type, in terms of qualitative and theoretical methods, it is the actant-network follower theory. Now, first, the important concepts and principles of actant-network theory will be briefly reviewed, and then the implication research method will be used. The implication research method uses the guidelines of a philosophical school, basic discipline, theory, or model and uses them in the specialized field.
Results: In the postmodern era, we need multiple theories of planning to respond to the range of issues facing planners and those interested in planning systems. However, actant-network theory may be a useful complement to that set of theories. Many of the existing theories in urban planning have a very general abstract and descriptive level and are simply not applicable for implementation. Since urban planning deals with both human and mental affairs and non-human and material affairs, the ever-increasing complexity of urban issues makes many theories that are one-dimensional and only focus on aspects of urban issues unable to answer urban issues. In today's era, because of the intertwining of social, economic, political, cultural, environmental, technological, etc. sectors, it can be said that we are facing a kind of integration of issues. When discussing a specific urban problem such as informal settlements, we are not only facing a physical or social problem, but we are facing all the problems and we cannot expect to solve the problem without considering all aspects. In the discussion of informal settlements, each issue related to the issue has its own ontology, which cannot be reduced to the ontology of other issues. As Latour also emphasizes in his theory, different spheres of existence cannot be separated from each other, but everything gains meaning in connection and in translation to something else. In the following, relying on the concepts of the actant-network theory of Bruno Latour, it is tried to calculate its implications as much as possible in urban planning.
Discussion: The actant-network theory defends the agency of non-human actants along with humans by rejecting essentialism and the nature/society dualism, and it is reasonable that human actantsare not superior and complete in the hands of any of the non-human actants. The degree of prioritization of urban issues, fluid urban planning, fluid urban planning, non-separation of human and non-human actants in urban planning, and investigation of urban issues are among the theories of actant-network applications in urban planning.
Conclusion: Urban issues arise as a result of the complex interaction that occurs between human and non-human actants, and in the meantime, the actant-network theory is against reducing the issues to a few general issues and believes that these issues should be addressed (as a black box). It should be considered and not just the black boxes themselves. In the interactions that occur between human and non-human actants, one should seek to identify the networks and connections between the actants, as well as identify the process of translation and negotiation that exists between the actantsin the union and expansion of their network. Due to the complexities that exist in the city, urban issues are constantly being produced and reproduced and are changing, therefore, urban planning should be fluid and not static in order to create successful plans by forming strong links in this field. Since the actant-network theory believes that one should start with the actantsand not with the structures, therefore, in identifying and solving urban problems, one should also start with the actants and how to link between them and not with the structures that caused the creation of urban problems. The actant-network theory is somehow neither an epistemological framework, nor a methodological framework, nor a specific scientific discipline, but at the same time it is none of these titles, at the same time, it includes all these titles and somehow goes beyond the frameworks and structures move, and this feature of actant-network theory allows researchers to focus on issues freely, not to be caught in reductionism, to do better in identifying the actants of a network, and not to look at urban issues from a specific perspective. The diagram below shows the analysis of urban problems from the perspective of the actant-network theory of Bruno Latour.